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Investment in renewable energy: What policymakers must do to make it happen - OECD Observer

These criteria were examined for several water management strategies suitable for the BMR, which were chosen after interviews with experts and managers from the Catalan Water Agency. Consequently, the Ebro inter-basin transfer proposed in the former Spanish National Hydrological Plan would be unnecessary. Scholars and practitioners agree that water resources management is an interdisciplinary venture, requiring expertise from multiple perspectives. Traditional fields of expertise in water management have included chemistry, biology, engineering, and finance.

In the 21st century, far broader disciplinary engagement is needed if global water supply challenges are to be met, including better integration of social sciences. This paper summarizes complex challenges facing today's water decision-makers and managers and then identifies the intellectual and professional requirements for meeting the challenges. The paper calls upon the water industry to help build the intellectual capacity needed to help them meet water challenges, while also identifying reforms in academic organization that will facilitate productive research.

Examples of innovative water resources research efforts are provided. The present work describes the in-progress activities devoted to the definition of a model to assess the sustainable management of the water resources at local scale. The objective of the model is to create Sustainability composite indicators starting from elementary indicators of environmental, economic, social and institutional nature.

Thanks to proper hierarchical relationships, these indicators are then aggregated in sub-themes, themes and pillars. Water resources get the growing importance in development projects in Republic of Croatia, partly because of the general trend around the world, where the drinking water gets strategic values, and also because of consciences of all participants in the use of space on the home scene about the importance of water resources in the future development of the country.

Croatia is generally talking rich with surface and ground waters, but the large part of water reserves inflow and run out by large rivers.

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Long summer dry periods bring the problems of available water quantities, especially in the Adriatic area. Consequently, in spite of water wealth, Croatia just with the good knowledge about water resources and efficient management can consider about the water as the comparative advantage in future development. Researchers more and more work on defining of water reserves, which as the surplus on the necessary reserves can get economic values and have been included in the future water business.

This paper presents the situation with water resources in Croatia, problems how to ensure quantity and quality and some ideas how can water resources become advantage in future development of the country. Water resources management has become an important operational and environmental issue in Lithuania. The rinsing costs of dependable water supplies and wastewater disposal have increased the economic incentive for implementing technologies that are more environment-friendly, and can ensure efficient use of natural resources.

Wastewater reuse potential for Lithuanian industries was determined and overviewed of the types of industries that could benefit from wastewater reclamation and reuse was made. The Integrated Water Resources Management model IWRM is designed for water resources management in the industrial companies and supposes possibilities for process integration and wastewater reclamation technologies according mathematically formulated efficient water consumption criteria.

Centralized system of collection and treatment of liquid wastes has been in vogue for more than a century now. While this concept has brought general improvement in the hygiene and sanitary situations in the urban areas, the system as such is costly and poses high demand on fresh water used for flushing the sewers. Decentralized wastewater systems offer sustainable alternatives to the centralized systems. This paper gives an overview of the technologies that have been successfully applied and potentially used, and advocates that decentralized systems containing these technologies should be produced using modern industrial methods and delivered in a user friendly state.

Further, these should be serviced and maintained by a team of skilled people. Issues related to the concept of sustainability are analyzed in the paper. Water guidelines issued by the European Union, actually setting the framework for all water related activities, are described. They are the action plan, instructions and foundations of every reasonable policy of sustainable development.

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The water management concept for catchement areas can be regarded as a novel approach to water management. It is emphasized that water is not a commercial commodity but rather a heritage that has to be preserved so that civil engineers, and water engineers in particular, bear a lot of responsible development in this area. Human beings as well as wildlife and ecosystems need water for survival.

Energy and the Environment in Asia Pacific: Regional Cooperation and Market Governance

Because of climate variability and change, population growth and development, water scarcity and poor water quality are threatening many regions. In most instances, scarcity as well as pollution is linked directly to poor water management and missing water infrastructure. Improved water management requires not only good engineering, but also science-based analysis, efficient institutions and co-operation among stakeholders. Territory of the northern slopes of Fruska Gora has characterised with unstable slopes with intensively moving after intensive rainy periods or under anthropogenic influence.

Terrain encircles urban, industrial, and rural surfaces. Technical methods in protection of natural resources could not been directly recommended. Because of the complexes hydrogeological processes and mutual relation of natural and anthropogenic factors of risk, it is very hard to value even if their positive influence on stability of slopes.

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Measuring has been doing monthly in 16 spots springs and artesian wells. For now, it has been determined seasonal periodic with little amplitudes of releasing water. Water was not respond with standards for water supplying because of high contents of ammonia, iron, manganese, and boron.

These components are characteristic for waters from turbidite and pliocenic aquifers. On the observed spots in the bottom of the landslides, concentrations are higher than relating concentrations over the edge. In some shallow wells, even hard metals have shown, which indicators of pollution from surface are. We had foreseen that the experiments should last three years. This is the first year of monitoring. All desalting systems consume energy, either thermal or mechanical or both. In the search for energy efficient desalting systems, it is clear that the reverse osmosis RO desalting system is more efficient than the widely used multi stage flash MSF desalting system.

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The conventional multi-effect boiling MEB desalting system simply called MEB here uses about half of the MSF pumping energy, and almost the same amount of thermal energy used by the MSF, if both have the same gain ratio. In this paper, the conventional multi-effect desalting system is revisited to show that thermal energy input to low temperature MEB is low, and can bring the equivalent mechanical energy, and thus the consumed fuel energy to low values close to that used by the seawater reverse osmosis SWRO desalting system, mechanical energy, and thus the consumed fuel energy to low values close to that used by the seawater reverse osmosis SWRO desalting system.

This paper analyzes the potential role of desalination as a sustainable source of fresh water provision, starting from the present framework and considering the trends in the desalination technology. Several aspects have been reviewed: the state of the art of the technology, focusing the attention on the most widespread desalination technologies; the importance of desalination in the different regions of the World and the future trends; the economic costs of desalted water and the uses derived from those costs, the environmental charges provoked by desalination and their possible corrective measures to be undertaken; future improvements expected for desalination technology, and their economic consequences.

Particular attention is focused to environmental issues and integration of desalination with other productive processes, particularly with energy production systems as a mean of dramatically reduce the environmental loads provoked by desalination systems. Several decades ago serious contamination of the soil and groundwater occurred in Hidas, Hungary, due to the non-proper deposition of large amount of chlorobenzene wastes.

Environmental Impact of Renewable Energy - Howard Hayden, PhD

To defend the drinking water basin of the area a depression method is used and the groundwater pumped up is purified by a UV oxidation lamp reactor, which operates at its full capacity. The main features of this reactor are: i Daytime, in the presence of anatase- TiO 2 catalyst, it operates as a solar photocatalytic reactor utilizing the solar UV radiation for the mineralization of chlorbenzenes, ii The integrated stripper works day and night and serves for the removal of chlobenzenes by air purging.

Air flows counter-currently with the water film, and chlorbenzenes removed by the air flow are oxidized in a catalytic air cleaning reactor, and iii Daytime the reactor functions also as a solar collector to heat water and thus, to accelerate the stripping process. The supply of purified drinking water is indispensable in most inhabited areas of the earth and is therefore regarded in many areas as urgent task. In contrast, in many countries a central effluent disposal is realised only in closely inhabited areas so far.

Since the emergence of waste water is extremely different in special regions such as cities, villages or rural areas, the collection and transport must be aligned to the special conditions. The hydraulic conveyance of waste water by centrifugal pumps provides some technical problems. Due the composition of the sewage water no conventional centrifugal pump can be used for the transportation of sewage water.

The technical problems of the waste water transport by centrifugal pumps can be attributed predominantly to the pollution of the water and to the therefore necessary special pump geometry. Experience has shown, that pumps which are equipped with a single-blade impeller, show the smallest risk of clogging and still have relatively good efficiencies. However these pumps show the disadvantage that their operational behaviour is coined by enormous flow forces.

These hydrodynamic forces provide high mechanical loads for the pump construction units shaft, bearings, seals, etc. Beside clogging of the pumps, which can be caused by solids such as paper, textiles, wood, fibrous materials, sand of different granulation and particularly biologically degradable components, substantial vibrations as well as corrosion and abrasion effects are produced in sewage water pumps. In this contribution the problems arising during the conveyance of polluted water by centrifugal pumps are represented, analysed and paths to their solution are pointed out.

Finally some examples for an ideal sewage water transport are discussed.

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For these examples the described technical problems in the field of pump technology are eliminated in the majority of cases. Thus the sewage transport, which is automated to a large extent is very reliable. A large number of sustainability accounting systems is currently developed: interdependences between sustainability dimensions and between regions are usually poorly addressed. A more realistic understanding of the consequences of a region's lifestyle is provided when including economic and environmental interrelations by linking multiples Input-Output tables and by assessing, in parallel, the transfers of long-range pollutant through environmental media.

An ecological-economic framework is proposed and illustrated by a case study of Austria and Germany SO 2 exchanges, either embodied in trade or transferred through the air. Corporations hold a position of central importance in today's global political economy.