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Resistance to the System Intensifies: The Re-emergence of Collective Action

They lack defined mandates and regulatory arrangements, external oversight, and a strict separation between public and private interests. For Leenders, high-level political corruption is a direct result of these deviations from Max Weber's ideal type of "bureaucratic organization. Author: Julia Choucair-Vizoso. Date: Mar. From: Political Science Quarterly Vol.

Hezbollah and Human Rights Legislation in the Lebanese Parliament | SpringerLink

Document Type: Book review. Length: words. This essay seeks to shed light on the current political economy of sectarianism in Lebanon so as to advance our understanding of this phenomenon. The decline in sociological analyses in favor of International Relations and political analyses has resulted in the skewing of the literature. In fact, pre-war debates around sectarianism were very much divided between those who viewed Lebanese society as being essentially vertically divided into sects [4] and those who viewed it as being primarily a horizontally divided class society.

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In his analysis of Lebanese exceptionalism, Michel Chiha, [7] for example, considered that sects have replaced classes in Lebanese society as the main social division. Interest in addressing the relationship between class and sectarianism in Lebanon seems to have faded in post-war discussions, both among activists and academics. More importantly, however, the flagging interest in exploring the relationship between class and sectarianism also reflects a decline in sociological analyses that engage with the question of social structures and social cleavages and attempt to study, rather than assume, the nature of social conflict.

While it is true that the sectarianism is a complex phenomenon and not reducible to class dynamics or economic determinism, it seems strange to completely dismiss class as an important factor shaping sectarianism.

Can we really understand sectarian mobilization and sectarian loyalty without looking at its political and social economy? The starting point from which to examine the social and political economy of sectarianism is the economic structure of the state i.

The Political (or Social) Economy of Sectarianism in Lebanon

Nevertheless, it remains important to understand why people follow. Within the structures described above, it seems that people do not follow sectarian leaders blindly, but rather follow their perceived interests closely. Therefore, while the upper ruling class uses sectarianism as a tool of control to maintain their position, the working classes abide by the sectarian rules of the game in order to access welfare and protection or to avoid sanctions.


  1. Now That Its Over;
  2. The Political (or Social) Economy of Sectarianism in Lebanon.
  3. Dubbele citaties.
  4. Die Pilgerin von Passau: Historischer Kriminalroman (Historische Romane im GMEINER-Verlag) (German Edition);

In other words, the current sectarian system acts as the guardian of the class interest of the elites and plays divide-and-rule politics whenever it feels that the status quo might be threatened or that people might be organizing based on class awareness. At that time, all political leaders, regardless of their sectarian or political belonging, stood together against the protesters and deployed all sorts of tactics in order to co-opt the movement that had reached an important momentum in denouncing the political class in Lebanon.

Similarly, it was remarkable to see all political parties come together to form a coalition in the Beirut municipal election of against the Beirut Madinati campaign that consisted of civil society activists. However, both movements ended up mainly attracting segments of the middle classes that are able to liberate themselves from the system of patronage and clientelism.

While claiming to be inclusive and non-partisan, these two social movements have shown a high level of class-blindness while maintaining a careful sectarian sensitivity. Finally, the labor movement in Lebanon is an important focal point for the study of the social and political economy of sectarianism and the interaction between class and sect. To be sure, the labor movement has managed to organize itself and challenge the status quo a number of important instances.

In this Book

The recent mobilization for a new salary scale for public sector workers has shined a spotlight on who the ruling class in Lebanon is, and what sustains its power. Ultimately, the ruling elites managed to coopt the labor movement by interfering in union elections, sidelining the two main leaders — Hanna Gharib and Nemi Mahfouz — and replacing them with representatives from the ruling parties.

Therefore, although it is widely believed that sectarian political elites rule Lebanon, it is clear that these elites do not operate on their own.


  1. Transforming Power Sharing: From Corporate to Hybrid Consociation in Postwar Lebanon.
  2. Cuidado del perro Goldendoodle libro y Entendimiento (Spanish Edition).
  3. Walking For Stress Relief (Self-Help Stress Solutions Book 3);
  4. Die Psychologie des Motorrads; Zur Wechselwirkung von Mensch und Maschine (German Edition).
  5. Atlantis Ship of the Gods Book 1 Part 1: The River of Life?
  6. Der Katholikentag 1968 in Essen - Und die Schwierigkeit moderne Entwicklungen in die Kirchenarbeit zu integrieren (German Edition)?