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a current look at the history of psychology, with news, notes, and additional resources

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This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Allen, B. Google Scholar. Alston, W. Anderson, J. Brooks, R. Campbell, D. Schilpp, ed. Popper , Illinois: Illinois Open Court.

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Does it really matter how truth is communicated? Does it matter if your dinner is served on a paper plate or fine china? I guess for some it does.

But for me the food is what is important, not the delivery system. Is history true? Yes and no. Any historian will tell you that there is no such thing as pure historical fact. It is all a matter of perspective and interpretation. The same event can be viewed from various perspectives.

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No one sees the same historical event exactly the same. Which one is true? The church has confidently proclaimed that all four are true, even though there is no way that the details can be honestly reconciled with one another. Myths are true. Myth is truth that cannot be stated in historical or theological terms.

Allegories and metaphors are true. The Bible has both. It is just a matter of which passages you interpret historically and which you interpret symbolically and metaphorically. In an ultimate sense all theological truth is metaphorical because all talk about God is approximation. Nothing we say about God is true in an ultimate sense. All theological language points to the God that is beyond the ability of our language to describe or our minds to comprehend.

Ultimate Truth is beyond us. The best we can do is utter earthly truths that point in the direction of Ultimate Truth. Anything more is mistaking the finger pointing to the moon for the moon itself. Dawkins is an atheist, a strenuous and militant one. He thinks religious belief is a dangerous virus, and that it is a crime to infect the mind of a child with it. He believes that "only the willfully blind could fail to implicate the divisive force of religion in most, if not all, of the violent enmities in the world today.

Dawkins not only thinks religion is unalloyed nonsense but that it is an overwhelmingly pernicious, even "very evil," force in the world.


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His target is not so much organized religion as all religion. And within organized religion, he attacks not only extremist sects but moderate ones.


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If you ask people why they are convinced of the truth of their religion, they appeal neither to heredity nor to evidence. No, they appeal to faith. Faith is the great excuse to evade the need to think and evaluate evidence. Faith is belief in spite of, even perhaps because of, the lack of evidence.

Dawkins' critique of religion rests on three points. Second, the choice among faiths is not based on rational consideration: the vast majority of people simply practice the religion of their parents. Finally, Dawkins considers religions to be vehicles of evil because they facilitate the labelling of people as either 'us' or 'them', fostering xenophobia and its attendant horrors. The worse type of religious attitude is the fundamentalist brand. Fundamentalists know they are right because they have read the truth in a holy book and they know, in advance, that nothing will budge them from their belief.

The truth of the holy book is an axiom, not the end product of a process of reasoning. The book is true, and if the evidence seems to contradict it, it is the evidence that must be thrown out, not the book. By contrast, scientists believe, not because of reading a holy book but because they have studied the evidence.

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In principle, any reader can go and check that evidence. When a science book is wrong, somebody eventually discovers the mistake and it is corrected in subsequent books. Religions, he argues, have historically always attempted to answer the questions that properly belong to science. Thus religions should not be allowed now to retreat away from the ground upon which they have traditionally attempted to fight.

They do offer both a cosmology and a biology; however, in both cases it is false. Not surprisingly, he finds little good to say about it: religion for him is the root of much evil and its disappearance from the world would be an unmitigated good. No decent person can fail to be repulsed by the sins committed in the name of religion. According to Dayanand Saraswati, the founder of the neo-Hindu movement called Arya-Samaj, the Vedic revelation is the norm of universal truth.

The Vedas are the sole authority for the ascertainment of truth. Man by nature is fallible and finite, unable to come to the knowledge of truth by himself. If he comes to know anything at all, it is because he has been taught by others who possessed that knowledge. Man can know truth only if it is revealed to him by God. The truth and the knowledge contained in them are perfect, eternal and infallible. Wherever and whatever truth is to be found has proceeded from the Vedas.

They contain not only religious truth, but every knowledge, every scientific truth. In modern times the scientists are simply re-discovering the scientific knowledge which is contained in the Vedas from the beginning of the world. The Vedas contain the totality of all truths: religious, moral, social, political, etc. The Vedas alone are the supreme authority in the ascertainment of true religion. There can be only one true religion and that religion is the one based on and derived from the Vedas.

Being the religion revealed by God once and for all, the Vedic religion is not the religion for Hindus only, it is the universal religion at the exclusion of all other religions. The salvation of the world lies in rejecting all the false religions and accepting the one true religion as revealed in the Vedas. De Bono scorns the view of those who look for absolute truths and are trained to believe that there is only one truth. So much of our thinking, talking and arguing is directed to finding this one truth.

Furthermore, if you are convinced that you have the truth, then anyone with a different version must be wrong. That attitude has been the origin of so many wars, persecutions, hatreds, etc. The traditional habits of Western thinking are inadequate, our belief in their adequacy are both limiting and dangerous. These traditional habits include: the critical search for the 'truth', argument and adversarial exploration, and all the characteristics of rock logic with its crudities and harshness.

So they became the established thinking of Western civilization. Philosophers need this idea of a single, universal and permanent truth in order to play their philosophical games.

Objectivity: Metaphysical and Epistemological - Lectures in Objectivism

Society needs this idea of truth in order to administer the legal system. In real life, however, this notion of truth is highly artificial and very limiting. De Bono suggests we strive for "proto-truths," which may be no less true, but as the term implies they are also easily discarded when better truths are discovered. Rather than argumentation, argues De Bono, one should use creativity to find the 'truth'. We need to accept that there may be multiple truths - as in perception or value differences. One of the functions of creativity is to create such possible alternative truths.

Creativity involves breaking out of established patterns in order to look at things in a different way.